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1Installation Instructions
2*************************
3
4Copyright (C) 1994-1996, 1999-2002, 2004-2012 Free Software Foundation,
5Inc.
6
7 Copying and distribution of this file, with or without modification,
8are permitted in any medium without royalty provided the copyright
9notice and this notice are preserved. This file is offered as-is,
10without warranty of any kind.
11
12Basic Installation
13==================
14
15 Briefly, the shell commands `./configure; make; make install' should
16configure, build, and install this package. The following
17more-detailed instructions are generic; see the `README' file for
18instructions specific to this package. Some packages provide this
19`INSTALL' file but do not implement all of the features documented
20below. The lack of an optional feature in a given package is not
21necessarily a bug. More recommendations for GNU packages can be found
22in *note Makefile Conventions: (standards)Makefile Conventions.
23
24 The `configure' shell script attempts to guess correct values for
25various system-dependent variables used during compilation. It uses
26those values to create a `Makefile' in each directory of the package.
27It may also create one or more `.h' files containing system-dependent
28definitions. Finally, it creates a shell script `config.status' that
29you can run in the future to recreate the current configuration, and a
30file `config.log' containing compiler output (useful mainly for
31debugging `configure').
32
33 It can also use an optional file (typically called `config.cache'
34and enabled with `--cache-file=config.cache' or simply `-C') that saves
35the results of its tests to speed up reconfiguring. Caching is
36disabled by default to prevent problems with accidental use of stale
37cache files.
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38
39 If you need to do unusual things to compile the package, please try
40to figure out how `configure' could check whether to do them, and mail
41diffs or instructions to the address given in the `README' so they can
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42be considered for the next release. If you are using the cache, and at
43some point `config.cache' contains results you don't want to keep, you
44may remove or edit it.
45
46 The file `configure.ac' (or `configure.in') is used to create
47`configure' by a program called `autoconf'. You need `configure.ac' if
48you want to change it or regenerate `configure' using a newer version
49of `autoconf'.
50
51 The simplest way to compile this package is:
52
53 1. `cd' to the directory containing the package's source code and type
54 `./configure' to configure the package for your system.
55
56 Running `configure' might take a while. While running, it prints
57 some messages telling which features it is checking for.
58
59 2. Type `make' to compile the package.
60
61 3. Optionally, type `make check' to run any self-tests that come with
62 the package, generally using the just-built uninstalled binaries.
63
64 4. Type `make install' to install the programs and any data files and
65 documentation. When installing into a prefix owned by root, it is
66 recommended that the package be configured and built as a regular
67 user, and only the `make install' phase executed with root
68 privileges.
69
70 5. Optionally, type `make installcheck' to repeat any self-tests, but
71 this time using the binaries in their final installed location.
72 This target does not install anything. Running this target as a
73 regular user, particularly if the prior `make install' required
74 root privileges, verifies that the installation completed
75 correctly.
76
77 6. You can remove the program binaries and object files from the
78 source code directory by typing `make clean'. To also remove the
79 files that `configure' created (so you can compile the package for
80 a different kind of computer), type `make distclean'. There is
81 also a `make maintainer-clean' target, but that is intended mainly
82 for the package's developers. If you use it, you may have to get
83 all sorts of other programs in order to regenerate files that came
84 with the distribution.
85
86 7. Often, you can also type `make uninstall' to remove the installed
87 files again. In practice, not all packages have tested that
88 uninstallation works correctly, even though it is required by the
89 GNU Coding Standards.
90
91 8. Some packages, particularly those that use Automake, provide `make
92 distcheck', which can by used by developers to test that all other
93 targets like `make install' and `make uninstall' work correctly.
94 This target is generally not run by end users.
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95
96Compilers and Options
97=====================
98
99 Some systems require unusual options for compilation or linking that
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100the `configure' script does not know about. Run `./configure --help'
101for details on some of the pertinent environment variables.
d16cf8a5 102
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103 You can give `configure' initial values for configuration parameters
104by setting variables in the command line or in the environment. Here
105is an example:
106
107 ./configure CC=c99 CFLAGS=-g LIBS=-lposix
108
109 *Note Defining Variables::, for more details.
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110
111Compiling For Multiple Architectures
112====================================
113
114 You can compile the package for more than one kind of computer at the
115same time, by placing the object files for each architecture in their
217e4d6a 116own directory. To do this, you can use GNU `make'. `cd' to the
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117directory where you want the object files and executables to go and run
118the `configure' script. `configure' automatically checks for the
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119source code in the directory that `configure' is in and in `..'. This
120is known as a "VPATH" build.
121
122 With a non-GNU `make', it is safer to compile the package for one
123architecture at a time in the source code directory. After you have
124installed the package for one architecture, use `make distclean' before
125reconfiguring for another architecture.
126
127 On MacOS X 10.5 and later systems, you can create libraries and
128executables that work on multiple system types--known as "fat" or
129"universal" binaries--by specifying multiple `-arch' options to the
130compiler but only a single `-arch' option to the preprocessor. Like
131this:
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133 ./configure CC="gcc -arch i386 -arch x86_64 -arch ppc -arch ppc64" \
134 CXX="g++ -arch i386 -arch x86_64 -arch ppc -arch ppc64" \
135 CPP="gcc -E" CXXCPP="g++ -E"
136
137 This is not guaranteed to produce working output in all cases, you
138may have to build one architecture at a time and combine the results
139using the `lipo' tool if you have problems.
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140
141Installation Names
142==================
143
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144 By default, `make install' installs the package's commands under
145`/usr/local/bin', include files under `/usr/local/include', etc. You
146can specify an installation prefix other than `/usr/local' by giving
147`configure' the option `--prefix=PREFIX', where PREFIX must be an
148absolute file name.
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149
150 You can specify separate installation prefixes for
151architecture-specific files and architecture-independent files. If you
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152pass the option `--exec-prefix=PREFIX' to `configure', the package uses
153PREFIX as the prefix for installing programs and libraries.
154Documentation and other data files still use the regular prefix.
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155
156 In addition, if you use an unusual directory layout you can give
217e4d6a 157options like `--bindir=DIR' to specify different values for particular
d16cf8a5 158kinds of files. Run `configure --help' for a list of the directories
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159you can set and what kinds of files go in them. In general, the
160default for these options is expressed in terms of `${prefix}', so that
161specifying just `--prefix' will affect all of the other directory
162specifications that were not explicitly provided.
163
164 The most portable way to affect installation locations is to pass the
165correct locations to `configure'; however, many packages provide one or
166both of the following shortcuts of passing variable assignments to the
167`make install' command line to change installation locations without
168having to reconfigure or recompile.
169
170 The first method involves providing an override variable for each
171affected directory. For example, `make install
172prefix=/alternate/directory' will choose an alternate location for all
173directory configuration variables that were expressed in terms of
174`${prefix}'. Any directories that were specified during `configure',
175but not in terms of `${prefix}', must each be overridden at install
176time for the entire installation to be relocated. The approach of
177makefile variable overrides for each directory variable is required by
178the GNU Coding Standards, and ideally causes no recompilation.
179However, some platforms have known limitations with the semantics of
180shared libraries that end up requiring recompilation when using this
181method, particularly noticeable in packages that use GNU Libtool.
182
183 The second method involves providing the `DESTDIR' variable. For
184example, `make install DESTDIR=/alternate/directory' will prepend
185`/alternate/directory' before all installation names. The approach of
186`DESTDIR' overrides is not required by the GNU Coding Standards, and
187does not work on platforms that have drive letters. On the other hand,
188it does better at avoiding recompilation issues, and works well even
189when some directory options were not specified in terms of `${prefix}'
190at `configure' time.
191
192Optional Features
193=================
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194
195 If the package supports it, you can cause programs to be installed
196with an extra prefix or suffix on their names by giving `configure' the
197option `--program-prefix=PREFIX' or `--program-suffix=SUFFIX'.
198
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199 Some packages pay attention to `--enable-FEATURE' options to
200`configure', where FEATURE indicates an optional part of the package.
201They may also pay attention to `--with-PACKAGE' options, where PACKAGE
202is something like `gnu-as' or `x' (for the X Window System). The
203`README' should mention any `--enable-' and `--with-' options that the
204package recognizes.
205
206 For packages that use the X Window System, `configure' can usually
207find the X include and library files automatically, but if it doesn't,
208you can use the `configure' options `--x-includes=DIR' and
209`--x-libraries=DIR' to specify their locations.
210
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211 Some packages offer the ability to configure how verbose the
212execution of `make' will be. For these packages, running `./configure
213--enable-silent-rules' sets the default to minimal output, which can be
214overridden with `make V=1'; while running `./configure
215--disable-silent-rules' sets the default to verbose, which can be
216overridden with `make V=0'.
217
218Particular systems
219==================
220
221 On HP-UX, the default C compiler is not ANSI C compatible. If GNU
222CC is not installed, it is recommended to use the following options in
223order to use an ANSI C compiler:
224
225 ./configure CC="cc -Ae -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=500"
226
227and if that doesn't work, install pre-built binaries of GCC for HP-UX.
228
229 HP-UX `make' updates targets which have the same time stamps as
230their prerequisites, which makes it generally unusable when shipped
231generated files such as `configure' are involved. Use GNU `make'
232instead.
233
234 On OSF/1 a.k.a. Tru64, some versions of the default C compiler cannot
235parse its `<wchar.h>' header file. The option `-nodtk' can be used as
236a workaround. If GNU CC is not installed, it is therefore recommended
237to try
238
239 ./configure CC="cc"
240
241and if that doesn't work, try
242
243 ./configure CC="cc -nodtk"
244
245 On Solaris, don't put `/usr/ucb' early in your `PATH'. This
246directory contains several dysfunctional programs; working variants of
247these programs are available in `/usr/bin'. So, if you need `/usr/ucb'
248in your `PATH', put it _after_ `/usr/bin'.
249
250 On Haiku, software installed for all users goes in `/boot/common',
251not `/usr/local'. It is recommended to use the following options:
252
253 ./configure --prefix=/boot/common
254
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255Specifying the System Type
256==========================
257
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258 There may be some features `configure' cannot figure out
259automatically, but needs to determine by the type of machine the package
260will run on. Usually, assuming the package is built to be run on the
261_same_ architectures, `configure' can figure that out, but if it prints
262a message saying it cannot guess the machine type, give it the
263`--build=TYPE' option. TYPE can either be a short name for the system
264type, such as `sun4', or a canonical name which has the form:
265
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266 CPU-COMPANY-SYSTEM
267
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268where SYSTEM can have one of these forms:
269
270 OS
271 KERNEL-OS
272
273 See the file `config.sub' for the possible values of each field. If
d16cf8a5 274`config.sub' isn't included in this package, then this package doesn't
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275need to know the machine type.
276
277 If you are _building_ compiler tools for cross-compiling, you should
278use the option `--target=TYPE' to select the type of system they will
279produce code for.
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281 If you want to _use_ a cross compiler, that generates code for a
282platform different from the build platform, you should specify the
283"host" platform (i.e., that on which the generated programs will
284eventually be run) with `--host=TYPE'.
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285
286Sharing Defaults
287================
288
289 If you want to set default values for `configure' scripts to share,
290you can create a site shell script called `config.site' that gives
291default values for variables like `CC', `cache_file', and `prefix'.
292`configure' looks for `PREFIX/share/config.site' if it exists, then
293`PREFIX/etc/config.site' if it exists. Or, you can set the
294`CONFIG_SITE' environment variable to the location of the site script.
295A warning: not all `configure' scripts look for a site script.
296
217e4d6a 297Defining Variables
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298==================
299
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300 Variables not defined in a site shell script can be set in the
301environment passed to `configure'. However, some packages may run
302configure again during the build, and the customized values of these
303variables may be lost. In order to avoid this problem, you should set
304them in the `configure' command line, using `VAR=value'. For example:
305
306 ./configure CC=/usr/local2/bin/gcc
307
308causes the specified `gcc' to be used as the C compiler (unless it is
309overridden in the site shell script).
310
311Unfortunately, this technique does not work for `CONFIG_SHELL' due to
312an Autoconf limitation. Until the limitation is lifted, you can use
313this workaround:
314
315 CONFIG_SHELL=/bin/bash ./configure CONFIG_SHELL=/bin/bash
316
317`configure' Invocation
318======================
319
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320 `configure' recognizes the following options to control how it
321operates.
322
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323`--help'
324`-h'
325 Print a summary of all of the options to `configure', and exit.
326
327`--help=short'
328`--help=recursive'
329 Print a summary of the options unique to this package's
330 `configure', and exit. The `short' variant lists options used
331 only in the top level, while the `recursive' variant lists options
332 also present in any nested packages.
333
334`--version'
335`-V'
336 Print the version of Autoconf used to generate the `configure'
337 script, and exit.
338
d16cf8a5 339`--cache-file=FILE'
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340 Enable the cache: use and save the results of the tests in FILE,
341 traditionally `config.cache'. FILE defaults to `/dev/null' to
342 disable caching.
d16cf8a5 343
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344`--config-cache'
345`-C'
346 Alias for `--cache-file=config.cache'.
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347
348`--quiet'
349`--silent'
350`-q'
351 Do not print messages saying which checks are being made. To
352 suppress all normal output, redirect it to `/dev/null' (any error
353 messages will still be shown).
354
355`--srcdir=DIR'
356 Look for the package's source code in directory DIR. Usually
357 `configure' can determine that directory automatically.
358
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359`--prefix=DIR'
360 Use DIR as the installation prefix. *note Installation Names::
361 for more details, including other options available for fine-tuning
362 the installation locations.
d16cf8a5 363
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364`--no-create'
365`-n'
366 Run the configure checks, but stop before creating any output
367 files.
22f6cb35 368
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369`configure' also accepts some other, not widely useful, options. Run
370`configure --help' for more details.